Did YHVH Tell Abraham to Sacrifice Isaac?
In the story of the banishment of Ishmael in Genesis 21, YHVH told Avraham that in his son Yitschak (Isaac) his seed was called (Gen 21:12), but in Gen 22:2 YHVH seems to have turned the promise upside down when He told Avraham to sacrifice Isaac. And in the culmination of the story in Gen 22:12, it seems that YHVH “changed” His mind again when He told him not to sacrifice Isaac thus having created another internal challenge for Avraham.
And He said, “Take your son, now, your only son Yitschak, whom you love, and go to the land of Moriyah, and offer him there as an burnt-offering on one of the mountains which I command you.” (Gen 22:2)
But, did really YHVH told Avraham to sacrifice Isaac, the promised son, whom Avraham so much loved?
The challenges we are faced with in the Isaac sacrifice
The challenges we are faced with, posed by the narrative as we know it above and by theological discussions in Rabbinical and Christian circles, occurs on four levels:
1. The Lord of the universe changed His promise given to Avraham that from him through the promised son Isaac many nations would come out. The challenge is: if He had change His mind once, He could change it again.
2. By telling Avraham to sacrifice Isaac, the Righteous One had instituted the practice of a human sacrifice contrary to what He has stated in His Torah that this is an abomination to Him. The challenge is: the human sacrifice.
3. Avraham’s lack of uncertainty or even questioning the Creator’s decision to sacrifice Isaac—is also problematic. We should recall that he negotiated the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah even for the sake of ten righteous. The challenge here is: in our story, we see nothing like this.
4. Avraham consciously and willingly obeyed, and brought up his unsuspecting son Isaac on the altar to sacrifice him. The challenge is: Isaac did not even question his father’s decision.
The present author will try to present all facts the text offers with the understanding he has without being conclusive on the matter. Since the Hebrew text is rich with meanings and shadow pictures, the sacrifice of Isaac is one of the present author’s favorite stories of the Bible.
We see from the challenges above that we are faced with serious theological and moral problems; problems we need to address to our best knowledge and understanding. Failure to come to some understanding or not addressing these problems at all would leave a big hole in our faith, since the sacrifice of Isaac on the Altar is a pivotal point of YHVH’s Redemption Plan.
As already said, the Isaac story is well discussed by the Rabbinical and Christian theologians not without controversy to the text and even to the internal denominational doctrines. For instance, Abraham ibn Ezra (1089–c.1167), famous Torah commentator, believed that Elohim’s words sometimes change and referring to our story, he said that Elohim first told Avraham to sacrifice Isaac, and then told him not to. Likewise, in Numbers 3:12-13 YHVH gave the priesthood to the firstborn, but then He replaced them with the Levites.
That was enough for him and others in the Rabbinical Judaism to conclude that, as they believe, the Just One can change His mind. But we know that Abraham ibn Ezra is in a contradiction to the Sages’ own teaching on the first born that originally the service was meant for the firstborn, but when they sinned by worshipping the golden calf, they became disqualified. The Levites, who had not committed idolatry, were chosen in their stead. We read this in Midrash Aggadah and also in the Torah, see Num 3:40-41.
On the other side, the Christian theologians teach that the overall theology has been changed at the cross where the Law has been replaced by grace with the death of Jesus, that is Yeshua the Messiah, contrary to what Yeshua Himself stated in His First Address to Israel, aka the Sermon on the Mountain.
According to Christian interpretation, Avraham reconciled the ideas that he would be the father of many nations, even though he was told to sacrifice Isaac, by having faith in resurrection. On the basis of this faith, the Christian theology teaches that Avraham could sacrifice Isaac and still believe that he would be resurrected and become the father of many nations. They derive the doctrine of resurrection from the contradiction between YHVH’s promise that Isaac will be the promised son and the command to sacrifice him.
In other words, the doctrine of resurrection, according to the Christian theology, comes from the contradiction of the Word of YHVH. A priori, this is false: there is no contradiction of the word of YHVH, therefore, the doctrine of resurrection cannot be derived from it. Otherwise, they correctly see that the sacrifice of Isaac was a prefiguring the death but also the resurrection of Yeshua, the Lamb of YHVH, by whose blood the sins have been forgiven.
Therefore, we see that we are challenged to understand, to our best knowledge, what did happen on Mount Moriyah, namely, (1) did YHVH change His promise when He told Avraham to sacrifice Isaac, because if He did, none of us is on a safe ground, and (2) was Isaac offered as a human sacrifice?
Was Abraham told to sacrifice Isaac?
In order to start from somewhere in the story of the sacrifice of Isaac, we need to find out what the narrative does say and what it does not say. But first of all, we need to clear an old misconception, heavily influenced by Christian movies and traditions, that Isaac at the time of “the sacrifice” was a little boy who was led by his father unsuspectedly to slaughter. But was he a little boy who knew nothing or a grown man who willingly obeyed his father?
Before proceeding farther in this matter, the reader is encourage to read the article How Old Was Yitschak When Avraham Offered Him?
By simply reading the Hebrew text of Genesis 22, we should notice that nowhere in it has YHVH “commanded” Avraham anything. We “find” the command to Avraham to sacrifice Isaac in the translations, and the English translations in particular, but not in Hebrew.
Let us read Gen 22:2 what it does say in Hebrew. The first problematic word is the word “now” as found probably in all English translations and unfortunately in JPS, as well. Thus translated, the verse seems like a command which had to be performed immediately, i.e. “right now.” What do we find in Hebrew though is something else.
The Hebrew word behind “now” is נא, na, and it simply means “Please!” We find this Hebrew word in Gen 12:13, as we read,
Please, say you are my sister, so that it shall be well with me for your sake, and my life be spared because of you. (Gen 12:13)
Avram did not command Sarai to say it “now” that she was his sister (because they were not yet in Egypt), but simply pleaded with her to say it, when they would enter Egypt and if asked she was to say she was his sister in order to save his life. So, hardly we can translate נא, na, in Gen 12:13 as “now” since the context and the timing do not allow us to do so.
Therefore, the proper translation of Gen 22:2 must be: And He said, “Take, please, your son, … That was not a harsh command from YHVH to Avraham to slaughter the promised son Isaac, that is to sacrifice Isaac, but a plea. We may be shocked to learn that the Almighty Sovereign of the universe can plea before a mortal man, but this is what we read in the narrative. Let us recall that Avraham was called a friend of YHVH.
The second thing that may puzzle many is that nowhere in the whole narrative do we find that YHVH has commanded Avraham “to bind and slaughter” or sacrifice Isaac. Simply nowhere. The problematic words in the text are offer him there as an burnt-offering. The problem here is how two Hebrew words were translated into English.
The words in question, as found in Gen 22:2, are עָלָה alah, and עֹלָה olah. As the reader has already noticed they are spelled out in Hebrew identically and pronounced similarly (there are no vowel letters in Hebrew, only consonants). Although, both words, alah and olah, are spelled with the same Hebrew consonants, olah comes from a different root: aval, and therefore, they are two different words and one is a verb and the other is a noun.
An interpretation would suggest that the noun עֹלָה olah, always refers to “a burnt offering” as in bringing up on an altar and later in the Tabernacle and in the Temple an animal sacrifice by fire. A literal translation, however, would require a different approach of view.
The verb עָלָה alah, is a primitive root and means to ascend, be high and is used in a great variety of senses, primary and secondary, literally and figuratively: to arise (up), (cause to) ascend up, break [the day] up, as the sun arises; to bring (up); to (cause to) burn, as what is being burnt rises up, carry up; to climb (up); to (make to) rise (up). Notice the applications of this word: to ascend up, to (cause to) burn, and to bring (up).
So, YHVH’s instruction in Genesis 22:2 שָם וְהַעֲלֵהוּ simply means “and bring him up there [the mountain]” where “vav” at the end of the word means “him” and “shahm” means “there.”
On the other hand, עֹלָה olah, (alternative spellings are עוֹלָה עַוְלָה עָוֶל עֶוֶל) means (moral) evil, iniquity, perverseness, unjust (-ly), and unrighteousness (-ly), wicked (-ness). It comes from the root verb עָוַל aval, which means to distort (morally), to deal unjustly. The first use of this word is found in Gen 8:20 where Noach was told to build an altar to Yehovah, and take of every clean animal, and bring them up on the altar. We read thus,
And Noach built an altar to Yehovah, and took of every clean beast and of every clean bird, and offered burnt-offerings on the altar. (Gen 8:20)
In Gen 8:20 we find the same expression “offered burnt-offerings” (or in some translations “offered ascending offerings”) as in our verse Gen 22:2. We also find this word in Lev 4:22-24, for instance, with its literal meaning: iniquity.
When a ruler sins, … he shall lay his hand on the head of the goat, and slay it at the place where they slay the burnt-offering before Yehovah. It is a sin offering. (Lev 4:22-24)
But from Hebrew we read thus, as it couples with the Hebrew word for “sin” chatah,
When a ruler sins (chata), … he shall lay his hand on the head of the goat, and slay it at the place where they slay the iniquity (olah) before Yehovah, it is a sin (chatah). (Lev 4:22-24)
Clearly our word olah is used in parallel with the word chattah to teach us that an iniquity is a sin for us, and in the Temple service bringing up an animal on the altar (alah), and ascending it up in the smoke of fire (alah), is a representation of our iniquity (olah) and not the iniquity itself. This might have caused the translators to render both words as one and the same: firstly by their identical spelling and close pronunciation, and secondly by their service. But they are not.
Therefore, the phrase “offered burnt-offerings” is to be translated as brought up iniquities [the animals as representations of iniquities].
But Avraham was never told to do olah, as Noach was told, until Gen 22:2. Again, nowhere in the whole narrative do we find that YHVH has commanded Avraham “to bind and slaughter” or sacrifice Isaac, but simply His instruction in Genesis 22:2 was שָם וְהַעֲלֵהוּ “and bring him up there [the mountain]” and the phrase לְעֹלָ֔ה שָם וְהַעֲלֵהוּ “and bring him up there [the mountain] for iniquity” as Yitschak by no means was “iniquity” but a representation of the iniquity on Mount Moriyah and on the altar.
By now the reader should have notice the upcoming shadow picture of something.
And He said, “Take, please, your son, your only son Yitschak, whom you love, and go to the land of Moriyah, and bring him up there as an iniquity on one of the mountains which I command you!” (Gen 22:2)
The text is as simple as what we read without any preconceived ideas. We keep on reading.
And Avraham rose early in the morning and saddled his donkey, and took two of his young men with him, and Yitschak his son. And he split a tree for the iniquity (olah), and arose and went to the place which Elohim had commanded him. (Gen 22:3)
The new element we find is that Avraham did something he was not commanded to do: he split a tree and took it with him, for what he presumed he was told to do on the mountain. That was, what the present author believes, the first thing Avraham presumed that might have led him to draw a wrong conclusion. When we read the Hebrew text, we see that the word for “wood” is eytz, whose simple meaning is “tree.”
The confusion might have come from the usage of the expression in Hebrew “and bring him up there for iniquity” to mean “to burn something on the altar on the mountain” as his ancestor Noach did after the Flood and what was the common practice at that time to bring something on an altar to burn it. But strictly speaking and judging by what the text does and what it does not say, YHVH did not ask Avraham to take a tree with him to burn it on the mountain. He did not.
After three-day walk to the mountain Moriyah, Avraham saw the place from a distance and he said to the young men who were with him,
Stay here with the donkey while the boy and I will go over there and worship, and come back to you. (Gen 22:5)
First thing first: the Hebrew word behind “boy” should be yelad meaning child, but this is not what we find here, but na’ar, a young man (for more on the age of Yitschak, refer to the corresponding article).
The word usually translated as “to worship” actually means “to bow down,” and notice what Avraham told his servants: “we will come back to you.” In other words, he said “we (plural), that is Avraham and Yitschak, will come back to you.” In his mind Avraham believed that they both would return to the camp after he finished whatever YHVH would ask him to do on the mountain. No word that he would sacrifice Isaac. This is the simple reading of the text.
And Avraham took the tree of the iniquity and laid it on Yitschak his son. And he took the fire in his hand, and a knife, and the two of them went together. (Gen 22:6)
If Avraham had already presumed that YHVH had asked him to burn something, in his mind he was expected to take a fire and a knife with him, which he did.
Now comes the critical moment which is full of emotions: Yitschak for the first time we are told is questioning his father’s actions, as we further read,
“My father!” And he said, “Here I am, my son.” And he said, “See, the fire and the wood! But where is the lamb for a burnt-offering?” (Gen 22:7)
If his father took the fire and the knife, where was the animal sacrifice, Yitschak was asking? From the day Avraham was asked to bring his son up to the mountain (for whatever reason) until the moment Yitschak inadvertently asked this prophetic question, we can count at least three full days. We can expect that there were some conversations between the father and the son on the purpose of going up to the mountain and exactly what they both were suppose to do there, but for whatever reason we are not told of their existence.
And, now is the moment we are expecting, Avraham said,
My son, Elohim does see for Himself the lamb for an iniquity (olah). (Gen 22:8)
Here again we see another new element: the lamb. Let us recall what the text does and what it does not say: Avraham had never been asked to slaughter or sacrifice a lamb on the top of the mountain, so that he would need a tree, a fire, and a knife. Nevertheless, we see both the father and the son played their prophetic roles into the Redemption Plan of YHVH.
But this is not all. The expression יִרְאֶה־לֹּ֥ו אֱלֹהִים elohim yereh lo, “Elohim will see for Himself” speaks a lot. The Hebrew text as we have it today does say what it says in third person singular active imperfect tense: elohim yereh lo, but the verb רָאָה ra’ah, to see, can also be written in a slightly different form to read in third person singular passive imperfect tense thus: elohim yera’eh lo, “Elohim will be seen for Himself.”
This is how this phrase is written originally (with no vowel points) in the Torah: יראה־לּו אלהים. Therefore, we see that in Hebrew both expressions are written identically and differ only in the vowel points which let us recall are not in the original Hebrew, but have been added by the scribes, so that we know how to read and understand the Scripture.
The Masoretic text supports the former rather than the latter, namely: elohim yereh lo, “Elohim will see for Himself” but this is how the scribes have decide to vocalize this phrase. The alternative and also legitimate vocalization would be elohim yera’eh lo, “Elohim will be seen for Himself.” Either way, the Hebrew text will be identical for the both translations. Which vocalization is the correct one, we do not know as none of them is wrong or grammatically incorrect.
However, we see a significant change of the meaning of the text: from “Elohim will see for Himself” to “Elohim will be seen for Himself.” Theologically this is a big switch from “Elohim will provide for Himself the lamb” to “Elohim will appear for Himself the lamb.”
The reader is asked not to draw swift theological conclusions, but to take into account what the Hebrew word for “Elohim” means; literally it means a mighty one or someone in power or authority. “Elohim” does not mean “G-o-d” as it is commonly translated and understood in English.
The word “god” itself does not necessarily mean the Creator of the universe. Behind the word “God” there is a theological concept depending on the religion and the denomination of the ones who use it, but it does not mean what the Hebrew “Elohim” means.
The Hebrew “Elohim” means much more to it than that. It can refer to the Creator (as the present author would translate “Elohim” as “The Absolute One” instead of “God”). “Elohim” can refer to His messengers (angels), but it can also refer to men, as we find this in the command to Mosheh (Moses) to appear before Pharaoh and be like “elohim.” YHVH did not tell Mosheh to be a God before Pharaoh, but be His representative in power and authority before the Egyptian, meaning to speak with authority, which Mosheh did.
So, to return back to our story, Avraham, speaking prophetically, did not say that YHVH will appear in a form or shape of something, if this will be the case of elohim yera’eh lo, “Elohim will be seen for Himself” but that One in power and authority will be seen.
Who could that in power and authority will be seen we will see at the end of our study.
What Avraham was never asked to do
Again, regardless of how Avraham pronounced יראה־לּו אלהים the phrase is prophetic enough, which matters to us, and if he had said it one way or the other, either way it was a beautiful and prophetic Hebrew wordplay.
We keep on reading,
And they came to the place which Elohim had commanded him, and Avraham built an altar there and placed the trees in order. And he bound Yitschak his son and laid him on the altar, upon the trees. (Gen 22:9)
The present author is in opinion that there is a time gap between verse 8 and verses 9-10. This time gap is not only for the time it took for both to climb up to top of the mountain, but also for something else.
After they reached the summit of Moriyah, Avraham might have paused for a while waiting for something. But, he might have waited for what?
But before that, let us read verse 10, as well,
And Avraham stretched out his hand and took the knife to slay his son, (Gen 22:10)
Here, contrary to what we have seen in the Biblical movies, we see that Avraham did not raise his hand in the air holding a knife to stab his son Isaac in the chest, but he stretched out his hand to take the knife, because in his mind he had to sacrifice Isaac.
The humane way to slaughter an animal for food or sacrifice is to cut gently the jugular vein with a very sharp and smooth knife so that it would cause minimal or no suffering to the animal. While the blood is dripping on the ground, the only thing the animal may feel is a deep sleep coming upon itself: the animal does not even know that it is dying but falling asleep. That was how Avraham had slaughtered his sheep for food and by no means we could have expected him to attempt to stab his son the way we have seen it in the Christian movies.
Strictly speaking and judging by what the text does and what it does not say, as we have gone deeper into the story, we need to say it again that:
(1) YHVH did not ask Avraham to take a tree with him to burn something on it;
(2) Avraham had never been asked to slaughter a lamb on the altar, much less to sacrifice Isaac, so that he would need the tree, the fire, and the knife for the slaughter;
(3) He had never been told to build an altar either.
None of this was in the plea of YHVH to him, and yet he did prepare the altar sacrifice Isaac the promised son on it.
So, what might Avraham have waited for when they reached the summit and paused for a while?
How Avraham might have misunderstood YHVH
Let us summarize how Avraham and Yitschak might have seen the whole story.
Avraham was never told “to bind and slaughter” or sacrifice Isaac, but simply YHVH’s instruction in Genesis 22:2 was “and bring him up there [the mountain] for iniquity.” That was what he heard as YHVH spoke to him.
While he was wondering why YHVH would ask him to go up to the mountain with his son Isaac and what the role of his son would be, he thought that he would be asked to do a sacrifice of an animal for the iniquities of his generation, as he prepared for the journey by having taken wood for fire.
As they were walking towards Mount Moriyah, most likely they were discussing the purpose of their journey to the mountain. Upon arrival at the mountain, Avraham thought that whatever sacrifice they would be asked to do on the mountain, they would do as asked and both would return to the camp, as that was what he told his accompanying servants.
Here, Yitschak asked the question, if they would do an animal sacrifice where was the animal. Avraham, as he himself did not know what he would expect from the whole thing, gave the most natural answer that a lamb would be provided, if they would been told to sacrifice an animal on the mountain.
Upon arrival on the top of the mountain Avraham and Yitschak expected to find there a lamb or other clean animal suitable for sacrifice for the iniquities of generation of Avraham’s time. As the time was going by and no animal was seen around, Avraham came to the conclusion that since there was no animal to be found on the mountain, from the very beginning (Gen 22:2) YHVH might have meant his son for “olah.” And he prepared the altar to sacrifice Isaac.
What YHVH might have asked Avraham
Now, let us try to see how it might have been transpired according to YHVH’s plan. Let us not forget, when we elaborate on the story, that a human sacrifice is an abomination to Him.
YHVH pleaded to His friend Avraham to take his only son Isaac, whom he loved, and bring him up to His mountain Moriyah as an “olah”, that is to be a representative, not a sacrifice, of the iniquities of his, but also of the future generations. Let us again recall the prophetic statement of Gen 3:15,
And I put enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her Seed. He shall crush your head, and you shall crush His heel.
In order to fulfill this promise, YHVH might have planned to give mankind a beautiful shadow picture of a man who would ultimately fulfill His Redemption Plan.
However, as YHVH saw from above the preparations Avraham did for an animal sacrifice by having taken wood for it, He waited patiently for the events to transpire. He was listening to the conversations between the father and the son during their three-day journey to the mountain. Upon their arrival at the skirts of Moriyah, YHVH saw that Avraham’s expectation was to find a lamb for the sacrifice at the mountain summit, to sacrifice the lamb, and return back home with his son.
And here YHVH witnessed the conversation between the father and the son and saw that Avraham had faith in Him: that although no animal had been provided so far for the sacrifice (as they took the whole chain of events), he believed that YHVH would provide it one way or the other.
They arrived at the summit and built the altar for the sacrifice and waited for the lamb to appear. YHVH waited to see what action Avraham would do as no animal was seen around. And when He saw that Avraham went in the wrong direction by having taken the things in his own hands and was ready to sacrifice Isaac his own and only son in the place of the lamb, the Merciful One stopped his hand to sacrifice Isaac at the right moment. He could not allow a human sacrifice, much less to sacrifice Isaac, as He saw that was what Avraham was about to do.
And He said,
Do not lay your hand on the young man, nor touch him. Because now I know that you fear Elohim, seeing you have not withheld your son, your only son, from Me. (Gen 22:12)
In this scene we see that Elohim is able to turn the evil into good and although humans may misunderstand Him and attempt to do evil thinking they are doing good, He can turn it around.
Should we recall the Yoseph story and what his brothers did and how it ended to make the Isaac story clearer?
We see here both the father and the son played their prophetic roles in order to fulfill the shadow picture which we are about to see of another promised son who should come one day and crush the serpent’s head, but before that the serpent should crush his heel (Gen 3:15).
This is how the Good News started at the very beginning of the world.
Therefore, YHVH had never had in mind a human sacrifice. He would never ask or command Avraham to sacrifice Isaac, or anyone else to do such an abomination; neither did He change what He had planned to do.
What was YHVH’s plan for Avraham and Yitschak?
And this is the moment. What YHVH wanted from Avraham was simply to bring his beloved son to His mountain where He would show him something.
What was it? What did YHVH want to reveal to His friend Avraham which He did reveal? For a deeper insight into this prophetic picture and what was revealed to father Avraham, the reader is encourage to read (for a complete understanding) To foresee Yeshua the Messiah and also The Festival of the Unleavened Bread and the Messiah before going any further in this study.
What was behind the scene Avraham did not know about
After the reader has read the above articles and has now a better view as to what YHVH revealed to Avraham, the present author may say that this is the best reading and understanding as to what has transpired on the mountain of YHVH.
This study has not been meant to be conclusive nor exhaustive, but to give an unorthodox view of one of the most prophetic stories of the Bible: the offering of Isaac.
With all of that being said, we still may puzzle as to why the righteous Avraham would have even assumed that his friend YHVH would ask him to sacrifice Isaac his beloved and only son.
According to The Book of Jubilee 17:16, this is what took place between Elohim and the satan. We read thus,
And the prince Mastêmâ came and said before Elohim, ‘Behold, Avraham loves Isaac his son, and he delights in him above all things else; bid him offer him as a burnt-offering on the altar, and Thou wilt see if he will do this command, and Thou wilt know if he is faithful in everything wherein Thou dost try him.
We see in Gen 22:2 that the Sovereign of the universe used the same phrase לְעֹלָ֔ה שָם וְהַעֲלֵהוּ commonly translated as “offer him for a burnt-offering” when He spoke to Avraham.
This “deal” between Elohim and the satan is not without precedent in the Scripture, as we should recall another agreement when YHVH tested through the satan the faith of Iyov (Job).
And satan answered Yehovah and said, “Is Iyov fearing Elohim for naught? Have You not made a hedge around him, and around his household, and around all that he has on every side? You have blessed the work of his hands, and his possessions have increased in the land. But stretch out Your hand, please, and strike all that he has – if he would not curse You to Your face!” And Yehovah said to Satan, “See, all that he has is in your hand. Only do not lay a hand on himself.” (Job 1:9-12)
It is very plausible that the conversation in The Book of Jubilee might have taken place when Avraham and Yitschak were awaiting the lamb from YHVH.
As YHVH and the satan were watching the men, the satan stepped in and offered the deal to test Avraham’s faith in YHVH, as he tested Iyov’s faith.
The test was granted and when Avraham was found faithful, YHVH declared,
By Myself I have sworn, because you have done this, and have not withheld your son, your only son, that I shall certainly bless you, and I shall certainly increase your seed as the stars of the heavens and as the sand which is on the seashore, and let your seed possess the gate of their enemies. (Gen 22:16)
Thus, YHVH turned the evil intent of the satan into a blessing.
Abraham’s offering of Isaac his son was an example of faith, as the author of Hebrews testifies:
By faith Abraham, when put to the test, offered up Isaac. He who had received the promises was ready to offer up his only son, of whom he had been told, It is through Isaac that descendants shall be named for you. He considered the fact that God is able even to raise someone from the dead—and figuratively speaking, he did receive him back. (Hebrews 11:17–19)
And indeed, Avraham while unknowingly of the test of the satan was ready to sacrifice Isaac his son believing that YHVH was able to raise him from the dead.
May we merit seeing the coming of our Mashiach speedily in our days.