References to Reincarnation of Soul in Tanach

Posted by on May 5, 2024

Tanach (the Hebrew Scripture) rarely speaks of “heaven” (only in Gen 1:1) and “hell” (only on a few occasions, i.e., Isa 22:14), and whenever it refers to them, it always mentions them “passing by” and never as a reward or as a threat of eternal condemnation. Why? The concept of reincarnation of the soul is only alluded more or less in the Tanach but never explicitly stated in the Torah. Why? Because heaven, hell, and reincarnation are unverifiable. No one has returned from there to confirm their existence, and no one has memories of a past life. Torah occupies itself with directions and instructions as to how humans to conduct their lives here on the earth, according to the Creator’s moral standards. This is verifiable.

The concept of reincarnation of the soul is only alluded more or less in the Tanach but never explicitly stated in the Torah. Why?

Infinity of life. The concept of reincarnation of the soul is only alluded more or less in the Tanach but never explicitly stated in the Torah. Why?

In the article Resurrection of Body vs Reincarnation of Soul, we argued in favor of the sceptics of reincarnation of the soul. Before proceeding further in the matter of reincarnation in this study, the reader is encouraged to read first the foresaid article, and then return here to continue. It would be therefore advantageous for the reader to study the concept of reincarnation in the entire continuation of the subject.

Life after death

“It is beyond the potential of man to know how God knows what will be in the future.” Maimonides

The term to which we are accustomed “life after death” has no meaning, because as death cannot live, life cannot die. Death is empty and meaningless, and life is purposeful. And what is meaningless cannot live, and what has purpose will live. For soul is like a flame of a candle, in which a spark from the boundless light of the Creator is included. But when we speak of life, what do we mean by that? Man is a body with a soul, or a soul in a body? And the main question man asks is, “Why am I going through all this in my life, and why are good things happening to bad people, and bad things to good people?”

Reincarnation, or transmigration of soul, is seen in Judaism as a major theological issue, but as such an issue it is not explicitly addressed in the Torah, and there are no places in the entire Tanach that cry out “reincarnation”. But nevertheless, the references we will present to the careful reader do form a big picture that indeed speaks of the concept known as “reincarnation”. It is commonly believed that the concept of reincarnation does not appear in the Tanach but only in the teaching of Kabbalah, in the Book of Zohar. But is it so?

Note: The ancient Kabbalah (Hebrew for “reception”) simply means received knowledge of the hidden meaning of Torah, things that is hard to grasp in the plain meaning of the Hebrew text. Kabbalah is this deep knowledge of the Scripture that is handed down from a master to disciples through the oral tradition. The Book of Zohar presupposes that the reader already knows Torah, Prophets, and Talmud. It is wrongly believed that Kabbalah is mysticism, and it is not to be confused with the modern-day nonsense of occultic fortune-telling, amulets, etc. We now return to the text.

On the surface, which is the plain reading of the Scripture, it appears that one is born once, lives, and dies, then comes the resurrection of the dead. This concept is derived not only from the seeming silence on the part of the Tanach but also from one verse of the NT (Heb 9:27) which reads that “it is appointed to men to die once, and after this the judgment”. But this verse, which is the only verse, in which the concept of “born once” appears, seems to be in opposition to all other verses in the Hebrew Scripture, the most prominent of which are in the Book of Job, to which we now turn.

Reincarnation in Tanach

“In order to understand the hidden things, we need to first understand the visible ones”. Navah

We do not ask the reader to substitute our judgment for his/her own but to consider what we intend to say in the following.

The opposing concept of “one soul per body per lifetime” in Heb 9:27 is not what the author of the Book of Job speaks of. The suffering soul and body of Iyov is at the center of this book. In the wake of the terrible tragedies Iyov experienced, he engages in a polemic with the Eternal over the question: Why are these bad things he was going through happening to him? This unusual and unique book in the Hebrew Scripture certainly resonates with people who seek to find answers because of the troubles they are going through. This book also provides a heavenly perspective on human questions causing one to consider whether receiving responses to those questions is a real possibility. We read,

He has redeemed my soul from going down to the pit, and my life sees the light. Lo, El does all these, twice, thrice with a man, to bring back his soul from the pit, to be enlightened with the light of the living. (Job 33:28-30)

The passage of Job 33:9-30 is perhaps the best reference to the understanding the concept of reincarnation (transmigration) of human soul. It will be clear to the reader that the perception of reincarnation of the soul is expressed by the phrase “He has redeemed my soul … El does all these, twice, thrice with a man”. What exactly is being described here by “El[ohim] does all these”? And what are these things that bring back man’s soul to the living? Understand this according to what it literally implies. The plain meaning of the sentence shows what these words mean: He redeems the soul two or even three times. The commentators interpret that “all these” mean the deeds the Eternal does to redeem man’s soul from perishing in Gehinnom (the pit). This is carried out in the process of returning the soul to new births in the world of the living. Each time the soul may return to the earth it returns in a new body in which it is purified. This process of reincarnation or transmigration of the soul purifies it until all wrongdoings are rectified. Reincarnation may repeat itself two or even three times in which soul gains rewards for the good deeds that are done in it, for the soul is not a material thing and cannot do anything good without the body, for the body is a mere vessel of it.

Meir Leibush ben Yehiel Michel Weisser, known as Malbim (1809-1879) was a rabbi, Hebrew grammarian, and author of a uniquely comprehensive commentary on the Torah and the Book of Job. He comments on these verses that the Eternal makes repeated attempts to save a person. And the great Torah scholar, commentator and kabbalist, Rabbi Moshe ben Nachman (Ramban 1195-1270), attributes Iyov’s suffering to reincarnation. Based on the above verses, the kabbalists are of the opinion that in addition to the first life, there are at most three incarnations. They cite the foresaid verses, namely, “El does all these (see verses 9 through 27 for context) twice, thrice with a man”. And indeed we find in the Torah that the Eternal punishes the iniquity of man to the third and fourth generation (see Exo 34:7). According to others, however, the reincarnations can be as many as it takes to redeem the soul. The matter of reincarnation becomes even stronger when we consider what we have to say below.

In the beginning of his trial, Iyov fell to the ground, did obeisance, and gave us the first hint on reincarnation. He said,

Naked I came from my mother’s womb, and naked I return there. The Eternal has given, and the Eternal has taken away. Blessed be the Name of the Eternal. (Job 1:21)

When reading this verse, it is inevitable for the careful reader to ask the question: Can a man come back to his mother’s womb, unless he is reincarnated through a new birth? But the author of the Book of Job goes on to say that man who is born of a woman is of few days full of trouble (Job 14:1), yet there is hope. Perhaps the following passages can also be explained on this basis:

For there is hope for a tree, if it is cut down, that it will sprout again, and that its tender branch does not cease. Though its root grows old in the earth, and its stump dies in the ground, at the scent of water it will bud and bring forth foliage like a plant. But man dies and wastes away, and man expires, and where is he? (Job 14:7-10)

Thus, the figurative language of the verses is interpreted in the following manner. Iyov contrasts here the death of man to the death of a tree. But as the tree does come back again to bud and bring forth foliage at the scent of water (verses 7-9), and as a river dries up and its bed is parched, so shall man lie down and not rise? Where is he (verses 10-11)? Until the heavens do not pass away, man and trees do not awake to a new life (Job 14:12)? These seemingly straightforward statements are in fact questions, Iyov asks while in pain. If a tree is cut down, its stump is revived through new shoots and does not cease. So, does man. As the root of a tree becomes old and its trunk dies away, but it is brought back to life, so is man. Tree and man put forth branches and bud to live again. In his distress, Iyov sees hope only for the tree, but for man as well, as he asks: “Where is man after he dies? Where is the hope for man?

If a man dies, may he live again? All the days of my appointed time I wait, until my change comes. You shall call, and I will answer You. You have a desire to the work of Your hands. (Job 14:14-15)

If a man dies, asks Iyov, will he live again? All the days of his apportioned time of life, he waits until his change (Hebrew חֲלִיפָה chalifah, literally, alternation) comes. And then what? The Malbim comments on these verses thus: “If God is callous towards us in this world and permits injustices, why should He act differently in the other world? And if the next world is fairer than this one, should we not be spending our lives in this imperfect world hoping to die quickly so as to enter the next perfect world as soon as possible?” The Malbim here seems to make the point that if man wants to go to heaven, he may go but not now. Until then he has to go through alterations (transmigrations) in this lower world.

But He has made me a byword of the people, where in former times I was as a timbrel. (Job 17:6)

The Malbim goes on to comment: “It being impossible to establish whether or not there is a life after death in which the injustices of this world are corrected, observers of Iyov’s torment will seek alternative explanations. There will be those who say that Iyov is in truth a righteous person and is being wronged, in which case they will be maligning Providence. There will be others who will say that Iyov is in fact a sinner and getting his true deserts, in which case they will be unjustly maligning him. Each type of observer will take the lesson of Iyov to heart in his own way and will choose the explanation most accommodating to him. How much better it would be if justice was seen to be done in this world and we were all saved from the inevitable errors of such moral judgments”. In other words what the Malbim is saying is that whether one is righteous person and seeks the reason for his suffering in the Eternal, or a sinner and blames himself for the trials he is going through, it is better to see justice in this world, even though going two or three times in reincarnation (“in former times I was…”) and be saved on the Day of Judgement, rather than going to Gehinnom.

Reference to incarnation in Torah

May Re’uven live, and not die, and may his people be numbered. (Deu 33:6)

Mosheh said concerning Re’uven, the son of Ya’akov: “May Re’uven live, and not die”. For what reason was Re’uven singled out from the rest of his brothers? Because the concern that he may die and not live is expressed only regarding Re’uven. Rabbi Ibn Ezra and Rabbi Nachman say that this is to be understood as a prayer. Why did Mosheh pray for him? He prayed for him that his name not be cut off from Israel and his people live because of the anger of his father, when Re’uven defiled his wife Bilhah. Mosheh’s prayer helped Re’uven gain atonement for the affair that he not be cut off and be denied the World to Come forever.

Rashi also explained it this way: “May Reuben live”: in this world, “and not die”: in the World to Come, that the incident involving Bilhah not be remembered against him [see Sifrei 33:6]. “And may his people be numbered” means, May Re’uven be counted along with the rest of his brothers. The great translator of Tanach into Aramaic, Onkelos, was a Roman convert to Judaism, a nephew of the Roman emperor. He explained the verse, “May Re’uven live and not die” to mean that Re’uven should merit the World to Come directly, as result of being reincarnated, and not have to die again. 

Reference to reincarnation in Ecclesiastics

A generation passes away, and another generation comes, but the earth stands forever. (Ecc 1:4)

“A generation departs, and another generation comes”. If this would refer to the normal course of generations, then the question presents itself to the reader: Can a generation come after the previous generation has gone? Rather this refers to the same souls (generations) returning (alternating) on the earth in consecutive lives.

Then, the wise man asserts his understanding of circle of lives (a generation, and another generation comes): there is nothing new in the world, it has been here already. We keep on reading further in Ecclesiastics,

What has been is what shall be, what has been done is what shall be done, and there is nothing new under the sun. Is there a thing of which it is said, “See, this is new”? It was here already, long ago. (Ecc 1:9-10)

And indeed, if one wants to know what the Creator is going to do, all one has to do is to look at what He has already done. See also Ecc 3:15 and the next verse,

Whatever comes into existence has already been named long ago, and it is foreknown what man is. (Ecc 6:10)

The phrase above “whatever comes” includes in itself the cycle of lives that have already been decreed to come; it is foreknown long time ago, says the wise man. Shlomo has now reached the end of his preaching and the end of his life, after he has made all earthly things insignificantly small in his poem. He seeks to describe how man, having reached his old age (Ecc 12:1), is going to his everlasting home (Ecc 12:5) where he had come from. The mind begins to darken, as the autumn of life with its clouds and rains is approaching (Ecc 12:2), all as a description of human life that comes to an end. The dissolution of life by which the separation of the soul and the body, and the return of the soul to the Creator is thus completed, while the ordinary life continues in its course (Ecc 12:3-5). The body returns to the dust from which it was made, and the life-force goes back to its Creator to whom it belongs (Psa 104:29). The body will return to the earth and turn into dust as it was originally made from. And this is how we translate the famous exclamation of the Kohelet in a more literal manner:

Transition! Transition! said the Kohelet. All is transitory. (Ecc 12:8)

And indeed, all in this world is transience, all is transitory. All is passing by, all is short-lived in a transformation: days, weeks, and seasons, year after year. There is indeed nothing new under the sun. It has already been in existence long ago, says the wise man. It is notable that the Hebrew word behind “transition” is the same Hebrew word הֶבֶל hevel for the name Hevel, the son of Adam, who according to the received tradition is believed to be reincarnated in Mosheh. We will return to explain below.

The case of unrepented sin

The concept of reincarnation in Judaism teaches that the Creator gives a second, even a third chance for the sinner to amend his conduct and turn away from his sin by starting a new life exactly where he left in his previous life. The unrepented sins and all issues that have not been amended in the previous life will come back to him in the current one, as the Eternal will put man in the same situations in which he has failed before in order to test him and give him a second chance for repentance. We read in the Prophets,

The soul that sins shall die. The son shall not bear the iniquity of the father, nor the father bear the iniquity of the son. The righteousness of the righteous is upon himself, and the wickedness of the wicked is upon himself. (Eze 18:20)

In different words, it means: a son who does not walk in the sins of his father will live, but the father will die for his own sins. The sins the Eternal speaks of here are those committed rebelliously and presumptuously; these are not unintentional sins, but sins committed with premeditation. This text says that although the Eternal is merciful, in righteous judgement He does not simply wipe and forget the sin when He is begged for forgiveness. Rather He inflicts punishment on the sinner who has committed the offences, not his descendants, unless they continue to walk in the footsteps of their father. Until when He will punish them, if the sons live like their father has lived? Until the third and even the fourth generation (see Exo 20:5, Exo 34:7, and Num 14:18).

In Chapter 18, the prophet portraits a word picture of three generations: the generations of a righteous father, of a wicked son, and of a righteous grandson. We read,

First generation of the righteous father:

“If a man be just, and do that which is lawful and right … he is just, he shall surely live(Eze 18:5-9)

Second generation of wicked son:

“But if he has brought forth a son who is a robber or a shedder of blood … shall he live? He shall not live! If he has done any of these abominations, he shall certainly die, his blood is upon him. (Eze 18:10-13)

Third generation of righteous grandson:

“If he has brought forth a son who sees all the sins which his father has done, but he fears and does not do likewise, … he shall not die for the crookedness of his father, he shall certainly live! (Eze 18:14-17)

In these words of the Eternal, the righteousness of the righteous will be his own, and the sins of the sinner will be his own: every soul receives the judgement it deserves, whether reward or punishment. He does not punish the just or reward the wrong but delivers justice directly and not through a substitute. It is clearly stated further,

The soul that sins shall die. The son shall not bear the iniquity of the father, nor the father bear the iniquity of the son. The righteousness of the righteous is upon himself, and the wickedness of the wicked is upon himself. (Eze 18:20)

The righteousness of the righteous is not upon the sinner, and the sins of the sinner are not upon the righteous. Everyone dies in his own sins. But if the wrong turns from all his sins in repentance, he will certainly live and not die. All the transgressions which he has done will not be remembered against him (Eze 18:21-22). So is it with the sinner, who was once a righteous man, is not supported by his early righteousness if he returns to sins (see verse 24). Everyone will be judged in that state in which he is found. The motive for forgiving a repenting sinner is given in verse 23, namely, in the declaration that the Eternal has no pleasure in the death of a sinful man but desires that he may live, as it is written,

Have I any pleasure at all in the death of the wicked? declares the Master Yehovah. Is it not that he should turn from his ways and live? (Eze 18:23)

But what if a sinner has not been able to accomplish his goal for righteousness for the lack of knowledge and mistakes he has done, despite all his efforts in his life? Will the Eternal not give him a second chance? Has He not said, “Have I any pleasure in the death of the wicked?”

A second chance to amend sins

As we noted above, Judaism teaches that the Creator gives a second, and even a third chance for the sinner to amend his conduct and turn away from sins. The Hebrew word for reincarnation is גלגול gilgul, which is related to the word גַּלְגַּל galgal, “wheel”. Thus, gilgul brings the idea of cycle or repetition, as a wheel turns and turns creating a continual cycle. In the Western mind, reincarnation (or “transmigration”) of the soul has long been associated with the religions of the East, which have introduced the concept of samsara, the endless cycle of birth and death, and rebirth. This is the core aspect of the Dharmic religions: Buddhism, Hinduism, Sikhism, and Jainism. Unlike these religions, wherein reincarnation is seen as reward of the soul, Judaism sees the transmigration of the soul as kindness of the Eternal. As such, reincarnation is described in Judaism not as punishment (or reward) but as a form of mercy, namely, to give a second even a third chance for the soul to repent, as opposed to eternal condemnation.

According to the rabbis, although, in reincarnation men stay men, women stay women, and Jews stay Jews, exceptions are possible, as long as the mission of the soul is completed: either to pay for the sins in a previous life and/or to return to the world of the living to do good deeds. With that said, there are three types of reincarnation: (1) to correct a previous sin, (2) to complete the mission left incomplete in the previous life, and (3) to assist someone to achieve the other two types.

While the goal of the soul is ultimately to break the cycles of gilgul and return to its Creator after the last sin is rectified, certain great souls reincarnate in each generation specifically to assist other souls on their journey or to help rectify some past wrongdoings. For example, according to the tradition, the soul of Hevel was reborn as Mosheh, while the soul of Kayin was reborn as Yitro. Thus, the reincarnation of Kayin in Yitro gave him a second chance to repair, tikkun, his relationship with his twin brother (whom he killed) and rectify their violent past, and secondly to achieve the positive relationship between them in the Exodus of Israel from Egypt. Hevel on the other hand was reincarnated in Mosheh in order to give him a second chance to fulfill his goodness, which he did not have the chance to develop in his first life. Mosheh thus became one of the greatest leaders the world has ever seen.

The purpose of reincarnation, therefore, is seen in Judaism as a chance for a soul to achieve a goal not achieved in a previous life, or as a chance to reward man for fulfilling the desires of his Creator in assisting others. But the ultimate reward of the soul is the Resurrection of the dead. While in reincarnation human soul returns to life in a new body and identity in order to atone for or suffer because of previous sins, resurrection is when the soul and body returns to life in the World to Come. Reincarnation should not be confused with resurrection of the dead on the Judgement Day. The first time a soul enters the world, the person is given the task to perfect his soul. If he is able to achieve this goal and has left no sins unrepented, the soul goes to “the world of souls” where it awaits resurrection. If not, the soul is given the opportunity to be perfected in different lifetimes. Each time a soul is able to perfect certain traits of its nature but fails to correct others, the body dies and the soul is reincarnated, and given the chance to perfect what has been left unfinished in the previous life. According to this view, previously perfected traits of the soul are not affected by sins in the current reincarnation; the soul continues from where it left the previous life. The soul continues its journey to perfectness, at which point the soul returns to “the world of souls”. Another and perhaps a simpler way to explain reincarnation is to see it as repeating a year at school: while some graduate to the next world, others are sent back down to the world to rectify their unrepented wrong doings. Once again, reincarnation must be seen as another chance for the soul to amend only those sins which a person, in whom the soul has lived, has not repented for. If a person has turned away from all sins he has committed in his current life and has done good deeds, he is not reincarnated unless the Creator will bring him back in the world of the living to assist others in their lives to achieve their goals.

Afterlife and reincarnation

The “afterlife” properly is called in Hebrew olam habah, or the World to Come. This is the place the souls of righteous people go to after death. That place is also sometimes called the World of Souls. According to the Ramban, the “World of Souls” is also often referred to as the Garden of Eden, which is the place where souls exist in a disembodied state, enjoying the closeness of the Eternal. According to the rabbis (Sanhedrin 99a), there is another world “no eye has seen”: this is the World of Resurrection. This is a world where the body and soul are reunited to live eternally in a perfect state. It is called the World of Resurrection because in it the body is resurrected to clothe the eternal soul. But this world will only come when Mashiach comes first to cease all wars and bring the current world for the “Great Day of Judgment”. The World of Resurrection is thus the ultimate reward for the righteous and is a place where the body becomes eternal as the soul is.

What then is the purpose of the reincarnation of the soul? The purpose of reincarnation is to serve as a vehicle toward the resurrection, for the Eternal wants no one to perish but to find an eternal life. Reincarnation is thus seen as a time of reward and a time of repairing and not as a time for punishment even though there will be corrections through tests and trials.

In the opinion of the present author, at this [final] stage in history, there are no “new” souls in the current world. Every single one of us (at the time of this writing in 2024) is a reincarnation from the past, and more particularly: we are the last reincarnation. If so, this explains why the society is in this state of depravity and chaos, of wars and evil, because there are so many souls with unrepented sins that have been returned to this world. 

One final thought. Man has free will. But what if in his last chance to correct his life, one has failed to do so or even worse, he has accumulated even more sins? In Judaism, there is a concept of “purgatory”, which is not to be confused at all with the Catholic purgatory. In the Jewish concept of the term, the purgatory lasts twelve months and only amends the unrepented sins in relation to the Creator. But purgatory does not atone for any of the sins done by humans to humans. How are those sins amended? Reincarnation comes to amend that debt, as explained above. And the last but not the least, we need to clarify something. When speaking of amending or rectifying sins, in the words of Torah these are the sins man has committed in ignorance, negligence, or carelessness; these are all unintentional sins. This subject on unintentional sin is all explained in our commentary in various places. Here, we will offer a brief explanation of the matter. These sins by mistake are all covered by the laws of Torah. The sacrifices for guilt and sin commanded in the Torah cannot and are not meant to redeem intentional sins: sins done in defiance, with knowledge, and with presumption. For such sins, there is no sacrifice in the Torah, and it is incorrect to say that the debt for such sins is paid through sacrifices. How are we to understand the forgiveness of intentional sins? We intend to address this in a future study.

For the perplexed mind

For the perplexed: Is it any more surprising to be born twice than it is to be born once? According to the interpretation of the Tanach passages which we discussed above, the Eternal allows a person to come back to the world of the living a second and third time. However, it is admitted that the true authority of the concept of reincarnation lies in the oral tradition and the teaching in Kabbalah, not in the Torah, which is silent on this. Yet, the Tanach does not seem to be.

So, which of these two concepts of rectification of unintentional sins the Merciful Judge would employ, if He wants no one to perish but to find an eternal life: “one soul per body per lifetime”, or reincarnation? So, why did the author of Hebrews make the statement: “it is appointed to men to die once”? We do not know. But from what we read we can conclude that the author of Hebrews has made the idea that if “the Messiah has appeared once at the end of the ages” (verse 26), and “has been offered once” (verse 28), then “it is appointed to men to die once” (verse 27). The statements in verses 26 and 28 are true according to the four gospels, but the statement in verse 27 is an association, and association is not causation. In other words, the statements “the Messiah has appeared once at the end of the ages” and “has been offered once” do not necessarily cause that “it is appointed to men to die once” and cannot be used as a strong argument.

On the other hand, the concept of reincarnation also makes associations based on the true statement in the Book of Job: “Elohim does all these – twice, thrice with a man, to bring back his soul”. It is notable that both sources (the Epistle to the Hebrews and the Book of Job) have unknown authors: the assumed author of Hebrews (according to the Catholic tradition) is Shaul, while the assumed author of Job (according to the opinion of some rabbis) is Mosheh. And perhaps this fact explains why the concept of reincarnation is so obscured in the Hebrew Scripture.

Why Mosheh?

One must constantly be asking, “Why?” about everything in life. The Book of Job is considered by some commentators the oldest book in the Bible written some time before the Flood. But who was the author of this book, and who was Iyov? The Malbim suggests something quite different and radical. According to him, and supported by other rabbis, Iyov is a fictional character and Mosheh had identified himself with the character he created. If so, through the character of “Iyov” Mosheh had raised a question before the Eternal that perplexed him after the sin of the golden calf. The people sinned unintentionally, and Mosheh must have asked question: “Would the Merciful One not forgive the sin of making an image of Him?” But the answer he received was: “I shall be gracious to whom I shall be gracious and shall show mercy on whom I shall show mercy”. This answer did not satisfy Mosheh.

In his personal relationship with the Eternal, Mosheh must have concluded that there is higher wisdom that works through the means of trials and hardship. For this reason, Mosheh wrote his polemical work, the Book of Job, in which he adopted the role of “Iyov” and four fictional characters to debate the Eternal (Job 42:2-6).

You know that You can do all, and that no purpose can be withheld from You. Who is this that hides counsel without knowledge? Therefore, I have uttered which I did not understand, things too marvelous for me, which I did not know. Listen, please, and let me speak. I ask You, then You make it known to me. (Job 42:2-4)

By asking the Eternal through “Iyov”, Mosheh sought to find the answers to the questions he was perplexed by. “Iyov” had never ceased to believe in Providence, free-will, the immortality of the soul or remediation in the time to come. However, knowledge of the Eternal is much better than blind faith, and important matters should not be left incomprehensible mysteries, and they should not be shrouded in obscurity. His intention in initiating the polemic had been to find the answer for the perplexed mind. For this purpose, “Iyov” had to adopt the position of denying their existence and start asking questions. And according to the oral tradition, Mosheh received not only the Covenant and the Torah but also some secrets of the world among which was reincarnation (transmigration) of the soul.

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